Discovery of new strain of carp in Cyprinus Carpio species based on molecular genetic analysis data

In the framework of the task of bilateral international cooperation between the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Fund for Basic Research of the Russian Federation, code QTRU01.07/19-20 by Assoc. Dr. Nguyen Van Quan, the Institute of Marine Resources and Environment, with Russian partner, led by Dr. Sergey Rastorguev, head of the Kurchatov Institute (Moscow), has discovered a new strain of carp in the Cyprinus carpio species from molecular genetic data analysis. The result of this study was published in the Specialized Journal, ranked Q1 Ecology and Evolution, on April 27, 2020.

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Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) plays an important economic role in the aquaculture industry due to its high adaptability to the environment and food resources. According to the history of domestication, Cyprinus carpio was the first fish to be domesticated in China, in ancient times. So far, there have been many domesticated carp lines in the world. However, determining the origin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is still controversial in science.

In this study, 68 European carp samples from 9 domesticated lines and 4 different natural fish populations were genetically mapped with the new ddRADseq technique. Results showed that the domesticated lines were divided into two separate groups. In particular, group 1 consists of carp strain in central Europe and group 2 includes carp strain originating from the North of the former Soviet Union, with cold tolerance. Scientists have shown that the crossing of domesticated carp with natural Amur carp (C. carpio haematopterus) and the selection through the offspring towards adaptation to adverse environmental conditions formed the second group. Therefore, this research result provides a better understanding of the genetic transformation history of current Cyprinus carpio carp from natural and artificial carp populations, including a mixture of fish genetic resources. In particular, in this study, scientists used molecular markers to trace the origin of the current Russian carp lines without relying on any historical data such as breeding maps or breeding history. Therefore, this research result is an important scientific basis for the application of molecular biology methods such as SNP, ddRADseq in genetic evaluation of livestock breeds and applications in breeding and conservation. This study provides background data to assess the genetic impact of Vietnamese carp strain on European carp strain, a result which will also be published in the near future.

Chart of spatial distribution of carp strain originating from the north of the former Soviet Union based on genetic distance; PC - principal component

Thermal chart of genetic distance between domesticated and wild fish populations

Chart of differences in functional genes between two groups of domesticated carp: blue → Northern group of former Soviet Union, red → European group

Translated by Tuyet Nhung
Link to Vietnamese version

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